Well they beat me to it, but you don't feed a vomitting dog. Many will fast 24 hours for diarrhea too. To let the tum tum settle down.
NOTE: Do NOT fast a cat. Just in case someone might have thought to do the same, very dangerous to fast cats.
LOL, it's normal the food was not digested, dogs don't chew very well. They can vomit hours and hours after eating and you still might see whole pieces of kibble. They gulp their food, mostly.
LOL again, you need to get over your squeamishness and investigate that "gigantic something." It might be a big help to know what it is. For you, so you can be sure not to let her eat it again. For your Vet, so he knows what he's dealing with. Besides, WE all want to know.