Sounds like a very excitable puppy.
Welcome, some great tips already presented! My 2 cents is about arousal. The issues listed make me picture a dog that is very active, intelligent and looking for some direction. The issues described are also in an area that is tricky because you are talking about self learned, and self rewarding behaviors. What do I mean? We learn quickest when it's a subject we like or if the reward is great enough. Same goes for dogs. If they like what is on the counter and get what is on the counter they will most likely try again. If they want attention, jump on you, and get attention they will do it again. If someone is walking by the window and they bark at them "making them go away", they will do it again.... Self rewarding behaviour.
If you have a dog that get aroused easily, these issues can escalate quickly, and with a 4 month old dog very quickly. Teaching a dog to relax is important. Play time should end with a pee break and a short rest in the crate. This teaches them that it is normal to spend time in the crate and to calm down safe from kids and cats. Find a good trainer in your area, the cost of training will save you on vet bills later.