We cannot judge all dogs as being equal in their ability to respond to the world just as you cannot judge all people to have the same abilities. Dogs are individuals just like people - we are all the same and all different. What dogs do have is a keen sense of energy. They read our energy and each others energy fairly accurately, what they don't all do well is interpret intentions. That's why chaos and confusion can ensue when WE aren't clear about how we communicate our intentions.
Hope that makes sense.
Love Them & Lead Them,
~Elizabeth & Doug
Dog Training the Way Nature Intended